The Six Essential Pre-Reading Skills

Skill Listing
Research has shown us that there are six early literacy skills that are essential for young children to
become familiar with in order to be successful readers.

These skills are:
  1. Vocabulary - Knowledge of the names of things. Most children enter school knowing between 3,000 and 5,000 words.
  2. Print Motivation - Interest in and enjoyment of books. A child with print motivation enjoys being read to, plays with books and pretends to write.
  3. Print Awareness - Knowledge of how to handle a book and how to follow words on a page. A child will point to the words on the page of a book.
  4. Letter Knowledge - Awareness that letters are different from each other. A child will know the names of letters and their sounds.
  5. Narrative Skills - Ability to create stories and to describe things. A child's ability to relay what happens at a birthday party or on a trip to the zoo.
  6. Phonological Awareness - Ability to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words. A child will hear and create rhymes, say words with sounds or chunks left out and be able to put two word chunks together to make one word.